According to some studies, acidic fog and rain tend to increase annually near the shoreline 12 Thus, in recent years the influence of environmental stresses and acidic cold fog on outdoor insulators and substation equipment has triggered the interest of power engineers. In addition, several factors related to insulator energisation conditions affect the performance of high voltage ciruit breaker and substation equipment near the shoreline, including environmental stresses such as wind, cold fog (acidic or clean form) and saline contamination 9 , 10 , 11 The erosion effect of acidic rain or fog is well known.
The aim of this paper is to investigate the various effects of climate conditions on outdoor insulators in coastal areas as a result of saline contamination under acidic and normal cold fog, determining significant electrical and physico-chemical changes on the insulator surface and considering the effect of discharge current, electric field distribution and surface roughness. Nexans Slip-On Outdoor High Voltage Cable Terminations are suitable for terminating 11kV, 15kV, 17kV, 24kV, 33kV and 42kV single core power cables – outdoor cable terminations for high voltage power cables connect polymeric insulated cable to outdoor overlines or busbars. Nexans Slip-On Outdoor High Voltage Cable Terminations AFNP-36 are suitable for terminating 33kV 36kV single core power cables 50-630sqmm
Buildings with medium-voltage circuit breakers for distribution circuits. Low- and medium-voltage power circuit breakers. In such substations, there is a need of mounting distribution transformers over poles alongside isolator switches.
These substations are primarily used in distributed power generation projects like wind farms, hydroelectric projects etc where power flow from multiple power sources can be collected and distributed to the grid by stepping up the transmission voltage. The step-down substations are capable to change the voltage levels of transmission to usually 69kv. The step-up substation may have circuit breakers which are utilized for transmission and generation circuits in the case when required to be shut down.
There are numerous types of electrical substations depending on its nature and power tackling capacities. RCCB (Residual Current Operated Circuit-Breaker without Integral Overcurrent Protection) as a type of Residual-current device (RCD, formerly known as a residual current device) — detects current imbalance, but does not provide over-current protection. High-voltage AC circuit breakers are routinely available with ratings up to 765 kV. 1,200 kV breakers were launched by Siemens in November 2011, 11 followed by ABB in April the following year.
Medium-voltage circuit breakers may be connected into the circuit by bolted connections to bus bars or wires, especially in outdoor switchyards. Medium-voltage circuit breakers can be classified by the medium used to extinguish the arc: Medium-voltage circuit breakers nearly always use separate current sensors and protective relays , instead of relying on built-in thermal or magnetic overcurrent sensors.
A shunt-trip unit appears similar to a normal breaker and the moving actuators are ‘ganged’ to a normal breaker mechanism to operate together in a similar way, but the shunt trip is a solenoid intended to be operated by an external constant voltage signal, rather than a current, commonly the local mains voltage or DC. These are often used to cut the power when a high risk event occurs, such as a fire or flood alarm, or another electrical condition, such as over voltage detection.